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Les adventices réduisent le rendement, et la réduction d'usage d'herbicides aggrave cette perte si elle n'est pas compensée des mesures préventives et curatives alternatives

Reduced herbicide use does not increase crop yield loss if it is compensated by alternative preventive and curative measures

Colbach N, Cordeau S (2018) Reduced herbicide use does not increase crop yield loss if it is compensated by alternative preventive and curative measures. Eur J Agron 94:67-78.

Cette étude analyse les relations entre usage d'herbicides, infestation par les adventices et pertes de rendement en parcelles d'agriculteurs, via la simulation. Nous avons simulé 272 systèmes de culture d'agriculteurs de 7 régions avec le modèle FlorSys, en partant d'une flore adventice régionale. Nous avons également simulé ces systèmes sans adventices pour déterminer la perte de rendement due aux adventices, et enfin sans herbicides pour déterminer l'effet des herbicides sur la perte de rendement et les adventices. Les résultats montrent que (1) la perte de production augmente avec la biomasse adventice et elle est très corrélée au ratio biomasse adventices/biomasse de la culture à floraison, (2) il n'y a pas de relation entre IFT herbicide d'une part, biomasse adventice et perte de rendement d'autre part parce que les agriculteurs prennent des mesures compensatoires lorsqu'ils réduisent l'usage d'herbicides, (3) la perte de rendement et la nuisibilité liée aux adventices augmentent lorsqu'on supprime les herbicides dans les systèmes sans aucune autre modification, (4) les effets sont plus marqués à l'échelle pluriannuelle qu'à l'échelle annuelle.

L'étude a montré aussi que l'usage des herbicides varie en fonction des autres pratiques ce qui interdit d interpréter cet usage indépendamment de ce qui est fait par ailleurs. Les systèmes de culture les plus sensibles à la suppression des herbicides étaient basés sur des rotations monotones avec un couvert végétal de courte durée, un fort niveau d'usage herbicide, du non-labour ou du labour hivernal, et des roulages fréquents. Enfin, nous avons établi un arbre de décision prédisant la perte de rendement en fonction des pratiques culturales pour conseiller les agriculteurs et les conseillers lors de la conception de systèmes de culture conciliant niveau usage d'herbicides et faible perte de rendement due aux adventices.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2017.12.008

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1161030117301892